The Arisaka Type 38 was a 6.5mm-caliber rifle massively used by the Imperial Japanese Army as the foot soldier standard weapon during World World II. Designed by Colonel Arisaka, it entered service in 1905. It was a bolt-action rifle, featuring a 31″(79.75cm)-long barrel, which was used in combat with a bayonet on, providing the Japanese infantry man with a considerable reach in hand-to-hand fighting. It had an effective range of 1,200 m and a muzzle velocity of 731 m/s. Based on the Mauser and Mannlicher designs, it was an accurate and reliable weapon. However, it did not have the firepower of the American M1 Garand semi-automatic rifle, which gave the US Marine an advantage over the Japanese soldier. A shorter version of this rifle was also built; the Carbine Type 38. In the mid 1930s, a variant of the Type 38 was developed; it was the Type 99, which had a shorter barrel, was fitted with a monopod, and fired 7.7mm ammunition.