The .30-06 Springfield (7.62x63mm) was a powerful rifle cartridge developed by the US Army in 1905 for the Springfield M1903 rifle, which had briefly used the .30-03 round and was rechambered in 1906 for this new ammunition. It was also used in the M1 Garand, the Browning Automatic Rifle, and the M1917 and M1919 Browning machine guns, being massively produced and extensively fired during the Great War, World War II, and Korean War. With the entrance in service of the M14 rifle, it was replaced in the early 1960s by the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge. It consisted of a full-metal-jacket spitzer bullet, and a 2.49″-long rimless case, and has 68.2 grains.
The 9x19mm Parabellum has been one of the most widely and massively used ammunition in modern military history. It was specially designed by Georg Luger for the German Luger P 08 pistol and produced since 1902 by the Deutsche Waffen und Munitionfabriken. It was also manufactured in the 1930s and 1940s for the German MP 38 and MP 40 “Schmeisser” submachine guns and the Belgian Browning GP 35 pistol; these firearms would see combat action during World War II. Today the 9×19 mm Parabellum is made world-wide by different arms factories for both pistols and submachine guns. Other famous and match grade firearms chambered for this cartridge are: Walther P38, Walther P99, HK MP5, HK USP, Beretta 92SF, and the SIG P210. The 7N21 variant of this cartridge is fitted with an armor-piercing projectile which can pierce a body armor at a distance of up to 45 m; it consists of a hardened steel penetrator core, wrapped up in a bimetal jacket.
Type: pistol and submachine gun cartridge
Projectile diameter: 9.01 mm
Case diameter: 9.93 mm
Case base: rimless
Cartridge length: 29.69 mm
Case length: 19 mm
Projectile type: full metal jacket, hollow point, unjacketed lead
The .45 ACP (11.43x23mm) is a firearms cartridge used in pistols and submachine guns. Designed by John Moses Browning, this ammunition became widely known through the globally use of the Colt M1911 pistol and the Thompson and the M3 submachine guns. Used in WWI, WWII, Korean War, Vietnam, and many other armed conflicts, the .45 ACP is one of the most massively manufactured cartridge in modern military history. The acronym “ACP” stands for “Automatic Colt Pistol, since it was developed to be fired from this handgun at the beginning of the 20th century. The reason for developing this round was that the .38 Long Colt ammunition, formerly used by the US Army, was not powerful enough to stop a charging soldier, as it had been demonstrated in the Philippine-American War (1899-1902).
Composed of a projectile, a rimless brass casing, and a primer, the .45 ACP is available with either full metal jacket or hollow-point projectiles, which measures 11.43 mm in diameter. The case is 23 mm long, with a diameter of 12.1 mm. Although it has a strong stopping power, effectively use in the Great War against a charging infantryman, this ammunition is ineffective against body armor due to its low-velocity.
Full metal jacket version
The 7.62x51mm NATO is a rifle ammunition first manufactured in the United States in the early 1950s for the Earle Harvey T25 prototype rifle. However, it became well-known world-wide when, in 1952, the Belgian State-run firm Fabrique Nationale of Herstal rechambered the new FN FAL for this cartridge, whose use went globally as many European, Latin American, and African countries began to import and use this gun. Being fired from the FN FAL, M14, and Galil assault rifles, this ammunition was used in many armed conflicts around the world during the Cold War, such as the Six Day War, Vietnam War, Yom Kippur War, Falklands War, and many low intensity armed conflicts between free nations’ armies and communist guerrillas forces.
The 7.62×51 mm NATO cartridge is made up of a spire point, full metal jacket projectile (or bullet), a rimmless brass case, and a primer. The projectile is 19mm long, with the a diameter of 7.8 mm, while the case measures 51mm in length and has a diameter at the base of 11.9 mm. Although it is smaller than the .30–6 Springfield, the 7.62x51mm has a very strong stopping power. Its equivalent is the American .308 Winchester.
The 7.62x51mm on the left and the 5.56×45 on the right side
The M982 Excalibur is a GPS-guided smart ammunition fired from 155mm-caliber field or self-propelled howitzers. It is manufactured by Raytheon and Bofors and costs about US $ 54,000 per unit. It was used in combat action for the first time in Iraq, 2007, by the US Army, being fired from an M777 howitzer. The M982 is capable of hitting an enemy bunker or armored vehicle, with a pin-point accuracy, situated 30 miles (50km) away. During its trajectory, it is stabilized in flight by folding fins that spring out once the Excalibur has been fired. Firing platform: US M198 and M777 howitzers, US M109A6 Paladin, Swedish Archer Artillery System, British AS90 self-propelled howitzer.
M982 Excalibur in action
A firearm cartridge is composed of four parts: the case, the gunpowder, the primer, and the projectile. The case is the shell containing the powder, and the primer is an small amount of explosive tightly packed in a small brass casing or blister at the base of the cartridge case, at the other end of which there is the projectile, which is commonly called bullet by civilians. How does a cartridge work? Once in the rifle breech, the cartridge primer is struck by the bolt firing pin; as it ignites it detonates the powder contained in the case. The extremely high-pressured ignition hot gases propels the projectile off the cartridge case, through the rifle barrel and out of its muzzle at high speed, which is called muzzle velocity. If the barrel is rifled (contains spinning grooves), the projectile will spin through the air, travelling with greater accuracy.