Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer

The Arleigh Burke Class is a series of 62 destroyers in service with the US Navy, with the first one of the class being the DDG-51 Arleigh Burke, which was launched in December 1988. They are armed with BGM-109 Tomahawk cruiser missiles, for land attack and provide fire support to ground troops, and RIM-66M and RIM-162 medium range surface-to-air missiles, which provide a protective umbrella to the surface fleet. Some of these destroyers, such as the USS Donald Cook (DDG-75), are also equipped with RGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles. They are launched through a series of 90 vertical cells. On the fore deck, the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer has a Mark-45 127mm (5 in) automatic gun.

Being an important warship of every US Navy’s fleet, the Arleigh Burke Class destroyer has been deployed in every Ocean of the world, specially in the Indean Ocean and the Persian Gulf. It participated of Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003), Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan (2002-4), and the late US and European attack on ISIS terrorist group positions in Iraq. In order to carry out its missions, the destroyer is fitted with AN/SPY 1D 2D radar, AN/SPS 67 surface search radar, AN/SQS sonar array, etc.


Length: 154 m

Beam: 20 m

Draft: 9.3 m

Displacement: 8,000 tons

Speed: 30 knots

Crew: 300

Power plant

4 General Electric LM2500-30 steam turbines, with 2 shaft, generating 27,000 hp; 3 Allison AG9140 generators.



Hiei Japanese Battleship

Hiei was a Kongo-class battlecruiser used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Pacific Theater of Operations of World War II. On December 7, 1941, it participated, as a carrier escort, in the Japanese attack on the US Navy base of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Her 14-in guns softened up the beaches before the Japanese invasion of Dutch East Indies. Having taken part in the Battle of Midway, the Hiei battleship was assigned to the Japanese fleet deployed in the Solomon Islands, to be sunk by the American destroyer USS Laffey (DD-459) and TBF Avenger torpedo-bombers during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal on November 14, 1942. Commissioned in August 1914, she had also participated in World War I naval actions. It was built in Japan by Yokosuka naval arsenal, but it had been designed by British naval engineer George Thurston.

Armament and Power Plant

Although Hiei was classified as battlecruiser, she had the armor and armament of a battleship, hence it is often referred to as as the latter type. She was armed with eight 14-in (356mm) naval guns, mounted in four deck turrets (two fore and two aft); sixteen 6-in (152mm) guns; eight 12-pounder (75mm), guns; and eight 21-in torpedo tubes. She was powered by 4 steam turbines, with 4 shafts, supplied by 8 boilers.


Length: 222 m
Beam: 31 m
Draft: 9.7 m
Displacement: 37,000 tons
Maximum speed: 30 knots (56 km/h)
Range: 10,000 nautical miles (19.000 km)
Crew: 1,4000 sailors and officers.



Hosho Aircraft Carrier

The Hosho was a light aircraft carrier used by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1922 to 1947. She saw combat action during the Sino-Japanese War and World War II. During the former armed conflict, her aircraft provided fire support to the Japanese ground troops fighting in mainland China. Having taken part in the Battle of Midway as a support carrier, the Hosho was employed as a trainer for the remainder of World War II, and, thus, survived the war.

The Hosho was the first Japanese aircraft carrier. She was made by Asano Shipbuilding Company, at Tsurumi Ku, Yokohama, Japan. between 1920 and 1921, being commissioned as an aircraft carrier in 1922. She could carry up to 18 aircraft (fighters and dive bombers). Her power plant consisted of 2 Kampon geared steam turbines, with two shafts, supplied by 8 Kampon Ro-go boilers, generating 30,000 horsepower. The island was set up forward, on the right side of ship (starboard).


Length: 168.25 m

Beam: 17.98 m

Draft: 6.17 m

Displacement: 7,500 tons

Speed: 25 knots (29 mph /46 km/h)

Range: 8,700 nautical miles

Crew: 510 sailors and officers



WW2 German U-Boats

The sinking of the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee at the naval Battle of the River Plate, early in World World II, by British warships demonstrated that the German surface fleet was not big and strong enough to challenge the Royal Navy. Thus, from then on, Germany decided to entirely rely on its U-boats fleet as the only effective means to destroy and sink as many Allied merchant and warships as possible, and sever the British supplylines that came from America. So, for the task of isolating the British Isles and starve their war industry, Nazi Germany developed five submarine types in the struggle for control of the Atlantic, with Type VII being the most widely produced. The German U-boats were the most advanced submarines in WWII, with a long range capability as most of them were designed to operate away from home ports in the Atlantic Ocean. Some of them were double-hulled and electrically propelled.

WW2 German Submarines by Types

Type II U-boats

Type VII

Type IX

Type XXI




Type II U-Boat

The Type II U-boat was a type of 50 German submarines used by the Kriegsmarine during World War II. It was developed and produced by the firms Deutsche Werke, Germaniawerft, and Flender Werke, in Kiel, northern Germany, in four versions: Type IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID. The first one, U-1, was launched in 1934 and entered service in 1935. It did not see combat action during the war as it was employed for training navy officers.

Developed from the Finnish submarine Vesikko, the Type II U-boat was characterized by its small size, being only 40 m in length and 4 m in width (beam) as it was served by a crew of 24 men. It was armed with only 5 torpedoes fired through 3 torpedo tubes. Its power plant consisted of two 700hp, 6-cylinder, MWM diesel engine, and two 402hp, electric motors. Its maximum speed was 13 knots on surface.



Type XXIII U-Boat

The Type XXIII U-boat was a series of German electrically-propelled submarines in service with the Kriegsmarine for a brief period of time, from late 1944 to May 1945, with the U-2321 being the first to be commissioned. The last one to be launched was U-4712, in April 1945, with a total of 63 Type XXIII U-boats being completed out of the 280 submarines originally planned, but only six entered service. These elektroboats, as this type of German submarines were known, carried out secret operations off the British, French, and Dutch coasts, sinking only six enemy ships during their ten operational patrols. Although it was considered a very advanced submarine, by the time they were introduced Germany was already losing the war and it was too late to make a difference as the German factories and infrastructure were being leveled to the ground by Allied bombing raids.

Like the Type XXI U-boats, the Type XXIII was a double-hull design, but had a smaller power plant,  which consisted of two 580-hp electric motors and one single MWM diesel engine. The battery was fitted in the space between the two hulls. It could remain underwater for a much longer period of time than conventional submarines at that time could do, and it was able to sail faster submerged than on the surface. Designed for local deployment on coastal waters, it was only about 35 m (114 ft) long and 3 m (10 ft) abeam. So, it was small and cramped and had a crew of only 16 sailors and officers.


Type: coastal attack submarine

Length: 34.7 m

Beam 3 m

Draft: 3.6 m

Displacement: 230 tons on the surface, and 250 tons submerged

Maximum speed: 22 knots submerged and 10 knots on the surface

Armament: only two 533-mm torpedoes (pre-loaded)