Raytheon Ballistic Missile Defense Systems

The Raytheon’s defense system against incoming enemy ballistic missiles, whose threat and risk are increasing in number and complexity. This defense system basically consists of the AN/TPY-2 radar, the standard surface-to-air Missile-3, and the exoatmospheric kill vehicle, which destroys enemy warheads while they are still in space.

Anti-Radiation Missiles

Anti-radiation missiles (ARM) are guided missiles conceived to wipe out enemy ground radars that control the enemy air defense system. The ARM was developed in the mid 1960s as it was first used in combat during the Vietnam War to destroy the Soviet-made SAM missiles radar installations of the North Vietnamese Army. These Soviet, surface-to-air missiles were causing a lot of American casualties and were responsible for the lost of many US Air Force bombers, specially B-52 Stratofortress, and US Navy’s ground-attack aircraft. In order to counteract this Soviet threat lurking in the jungle of North Vietnam, the US Navy’s engineers designed the first anti-radiation missile, which was the AGM-45 Shrike, which was first launched in combat from the A-4 Skyhawk; later, the US Navy would employ the F-4G Phantom II and the US Air Force the 105G Thunderchief fighter-bombers as the standard platform of the anti-radiation missiles. These aircraft variants were called Wild Weasels.

List of anti-radiation missiles

United States of America

United Kingdom

  • ALARM. It entered service in 1990. Launched from a Tornado GR.4 aircraft, it has an operational range of 95 km.

Germany

  • ARMIGER. Launched from a Panavia Tornado aircraft, it is presently in service in the German Air Force, replacing the AGM-88 Harm. It has a range of over 200 km. Its warhead weighs 20 kg.

Russia

  • Kh-25MP. It is a variant of the Kh-25 (AS-10 Karen) tactical air-to-surface missile, entering service in the late 1970s.

AGM-78 Standard ARM

The AGM-78 Standard ARM was a medium-range air-to-surface guided missile developed from the RIM-66 Standard MR by General Dynamics for the US Navy and the US Air Force. The AGM-78 was guided by the radar energy emitted by the target. Thus, the Standard ARM was designed to strike North Vietnamese radars that controlled anti-aircraft guns and missiles. The acronym “ARM” stands for “anti-radiation missile”. It was used during the Vietnam War and usually launched from an F-4G, F-105, or A-6 aircraft.

The AGM-78 first version, the A1 Model 0, was little more than an air-launched RIM-66 with the Shrike’s anti radar seeker head attached to the front. Fitted with a blast-fragmentation warhead, this variant was powered by an Aerojet Mark 27 MOD 4 dual-thrust solid rocket. Although it was more effective and destrutive, the AGM-78 was much more expensive than the AGM-45 and the Shrike continued in service for some time.

General Dynamics made modifications to the Standard, obtaining three more versions with improved electronic counter-countermeasures and more precise and selective seekers. More than 700 AGM-78 missiles were produced until 1978. Thus, in 1969 an improved model called the AGM-78B entered into service. This featured a broadband seeker which allowed the missile to be used against a much wider variety of targets without having to select the seeker before the mission. Between 1973 and 1976 General Dynamics introduced the AGM-78D, which was fitted with a new motor. A follow up missile, the AGM-78D2, had an active optical fuze, still greater reliability, and a new 100 kg (220 lb) blast-fragmentation warhead.

Specifications for the AGM-78 Standard

Diameter : 1 foot 1½ inches (343 mm)
Length : 15 ft (4.6 m)
Finspan : 3 feet 3½ inches (1.00 m)
Weight : 1,350–1,800 lb (610–820 kg) depending on model
Engine: Aerojet Mk 27, Mod 4 solid rocket motor
Warhead : 100 kg (220 lb) blast-fragmentation type
Fusing : Active optical proximity type
Range : Up to 70 miles (100 km)
Speed : Mach 2.0

AGM-78 Standard (Video)

AGM-45 Shrike

The AGM-45 Shrike was an air-to-surface, anti-radiation missile developed in 1963 by the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake for the US Navy. It was specially designed to home in on and destroy hostile anti-aircraft radars. The AGM-45 was used during the Vietnam War and the Falklands War. Launched from Wild Weasel aircraft, such as specially adapted A-4 Skyhawk, the F-4G, the A-6 Intruder, F-105G, and modified British Vulcan bomber, the Shrike was the first generation anti-radiation missile. However, to avoid being spotted and hit by this missile, the North Vietnamese Army units that operated the SAM launching sites on the ground turned off their tracking radars just before an impending US attack.agm-45_shrikeThe AGM-45 entered into service in 1965, firs used combat during the Vietnam War mounted on the A-4 Skyhawk. Developed from the AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missile, it was armed with a 149 lb (67.5 Kg) MK 5 MOD 1 blast-fragmentation warhead.

Specifications

Type: anti-radiation missile
Length: 3.05 m
Diameter: 20.3 cm
Weight: 177 kg
Guiding system: passive homing radar

AGM-Shrike in Action (video)

Weapons used in Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad was perhaps the biggest and most vicious battle of World War II and all types of weapons were used to defeat the enemy. Here are the most important and decisive ones.

German Armament

Tanks:

Panzerkampfwagen III (Sd Kfz 141). Depending on the version, it was armed with either a 37-mm (KwK 36) or a 50-mm gun (Kwk 39). Frontal armor: 50 mm. Maximum speed: 25 mph (40 km/h).

Panzerkampfwagen IV. Ausf A, B, D, and F variants had a 75-mm, short-barreled, low-velocity gun (KwK 37 L/24), which could not pierce the Russian T-34 front armor at a distance further than 400 m. The Ausf G version had a 75-mm, long-barreled, high-velocity cannon (KwK 4 L/43), which could effectively pierce the T-34 armor from 1,000 m away. But, by late August 1942, only a quarter of Pzkfw IV tanks of the 4th Panzer Army were equipped with this more powerful longer gun. Frontal armor: 50 mm; side armor: 30 mm.

Anti-tank Armored Vehicles

StuG III. It mounted a 75 mm gun on the chassis of the PzKfw III tank.

Anti-tank Guns

8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37. This was a powerful, long-barreled, AA gun also used as an anti-tank weapon. Fitted with new telescopic sight, this 88mm gun could destroy a T-34 at 4,000 m away.

5 cm Pak 35. Despite its calibre, it was a lethal anti-tank gun capable of destroying a Soviet T-34 tank from a distance of 1,400 m.

Aircraft

Junkers Ju 87 Stuka: a dive bomber, with a 4,000 lbs (2,000 kg) bombload

Messerschmitt Bf 109: a fast fighter aircraft, with a maximum speed of 398 mph (640 km/h)

Field Artillery

10.5-cm leFH 18: a 105mm field gun

7.5-cm FK 16 / 18: two 75mm field guns

Infantry Armament

Mauser 98K bolt-action rifle; MP 40 Schmeisser submachine gun; MG 34 and MG 42 machine guns; 5 cm Granatwerfer 36 (a 50mm mortar) and 8 cm Granatwerfer 34 ( 80mm mortar).

Soviet Armament

Tanks

KV 1: a heavy tank, fitted with a 76mm gun. Max speed: 22 mph. Armor: 130mm-thick at the front of turret.

T-34: a medium tank armed with a 76.2mm gun. Max speed: 33 mph. Armor: 81mm-thick at the front.

Aircraft

Ilyushin IL-2: a ground-attack aircraft. Bombload: 1,220 lbs (600 kg). Weapons: two 23mm guns and two 7.62mm machine guns.

Yakovlev YAK-9: a fighter aircraft. Max speed: 373 mph.

Field Artillery

Model 00/02: a 76.2-mm, mule-drawn field gun.

Model 1936: a 76.2-mm field gun.

Infantry Armament

Mosin-Nagant 7.62mm, bolt-action rifle; Tokarev 7.62mm, self-loading rifle; PPSh-41 submachine gun; DShK 1938 machine gun.

Blitzkrieg Weapons

To carry out WWII Blitzkrieg, the Wehrmacht used four types of weapons; the aircraft, the tank, the self-propelled gun, and the truck-towed anti-tank gun, providing the German Army’s spearhead units a combination of dynamic mobility, fire support, and accuracy to punch holes in the enemy lines through which to pour into enemy territory and encircle their foe in pincers movements. They were successfully used during the first years of the war, from 1939 to 1943, helping the Germans to obtain victory in the Polish Campaign and the Battle of France, and make territorial gains in Russia.

Aircraft

Junkers Ju 87 “Stuka”. – A single-engined dive bomber widely used throughout the war by the Luftwaffe. Being one of the key elements of the Blitzkrieg, it was a kind of flying artillery that provided quick fire support to front line units, attacking enemy armored units, field guns as it disrupted their supply lines.

Messerschmitt Me-110. – Armed with two 20mm guns and four forward firing machine guns, it was a two-engined, heavy fighter, which was also used as a ground-attack aircraft.

Messerschmitt Bf 109. – A fast and maneuverable fighter that played an important role in gaining the air supremacy that allowed the German dive bombers and ground-attack aircraft to operate freely in the skies over Europe in the first years of the war.

Tanks

The Panzer II, III, and IV were important weapons of the Blitzkrieg as they were massively used in independent armored divisions to tear out gaps in the enemy lines, fighting in coordination with ground attack aircraft. The guns they mounted were used in the direct fire role to destroy enemy armored vehicles and bunkers.

Self-propelled Guns

The sIG-33 auf Geschützwagen, Sturmgeschütz III, and Geschützwagen III/IV were 150mm artillery pieces mounted on tank chassis, which gave them mobility fast enough to catch up with the armored divisions and mechanized infantry.

Truck-towed Anti-tank Guns

7.5-cm Pak 40. – Used by mechanized infantry units, it was a 75mm gun capable of putting out of action any kind of Allied tanks, including the Soviet T-34

8.8-cm Flak 36/37. – originally designed as AA gun, this 88mm artillery piece turned out to be the most powerful and most accurate anti-tank gun of the war, capable of destroying a T-34 from a distance of 2,000 m +.