Consulate (1799-1804)

The French Consulate was the political regime which ruled France from 1799 to 1804. On November 9, 1799 (18 Brumaire of the Year VIII) Napoleon Bonaparte had led the coup d’etat which overthrew the Directory and established the Consulate, which consisted of three Consuls: Napoleon Bonaparte, who was the First Consul, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, and Pierre-Roger Ducos. The Second and the Third ones were later replaced by Jean-Jacques-Regis de Cambaceres and Charles Francois Lebrun. Although the executive power was legally shared by three men, it was Napoleon who actually held the real power as he was named First Consul For Life in 1802. This effectively led to Bonaparte’s dictatorship and eventually, in 1804, to his proclamation as Emperor, which brought to a close the specifically republican phase of the French Revolution. During the Consulate, Napoleon defeated the Second Coalition of European Powers as he began to strengthen the French economy.

Although the executive power was vested in three Consuls, who were elected for ten years, there were three parliamentary assemblies: the Council of State which drafted bills, the Tribunate which discussed them without voting them, and the Legislative Assembly which voted them without discussing them. Popular suffrage was retained, but altered by the lists of notables from which the members of the Assemblies were to be chosen by the Conservative Senate.

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Thor is Carlos Benito Camacho, the manager and writer of this blog.