The Hébertists were an extremist political group which played an important role in the violent events, such as the August 10th (1792), which led to the abolishing of the monarchy and the establishment of the French First Republic by the National Convention, during the French Revolution. This revolutionary faction was led by Jacques Hébert, a journalist and an editor of the radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne. They were atheist and were against the Church, demanding an anti-Christian government. In October 1792, the Hébertists turned the Cathedral of Notre-Dame into a Temple of Reason.
In June 1793, a group of Hébertists, supported by a National Guard unit, forced the National Convention to expel and arrest all the Girondins (moderates) from the government. After the assassination of Jean-Paul Marat by a Girondin sympathizer in July 1793, Hébert positioned himself as Marat’s natural successor of this man who had also ultra-revolutionary beliefs. As a result, the Hébertists’ popularity grew amid the Reign of Terror. On March 4, 1794, they also attempted to expel Maximilien Robespierre and his followers from the National Convention, but failed. Since they represented an increasingly destabilizing influence and a threat to other extremist groups, such as the Robespierre-led Jacobins, the Hebertists were denounced by Saint-Just and Robespierre and in March, 1794, the leaders of the faction, Jacques Hébert, Antoine-François Momoro and others, were arrested and executed by guillotine.