The Indo-Europeans were a group of peoples that, according to theories, belonged to a common race and spoke a common proto-Indo-European language. They first inhabited a region between the Black Sea and the Ural River-Caspian Sea. Each of these peoples were divided into tribes. They began a slow yet unrelenting migratory wave eastward, westward, and southward between 3000 BC and 1200 BC.

The Aryans and Persians migrated eastwardly, going as far as India. The Hittites, Kassites, and Mitanians went southward through the Anatolian region. The Celts, Italics, Hellenics (Greeks), and Germanics moved westward, then fanning out south, into Mediterranean regions (Hellenics and Italics), north, into what is today Germany and the Baltic region. The Slavs remained in central Europe.

Moving in a westwardly direction, the Celts divided into three migrating groups; a first group crossed the Pyrinnees and settled in what is today Spain (Asturians, Lusitans, Galicians); a second group crossed the channel and settled in what is today the British Isles (Bretons, Scots, Pics), and a third group settled in France (Gauls), Switzerland, and parts of Germany.

The Italic people divided into three main branches: the Latins, Sabines, and Umbrians; the Hellenics into Dorics, Ionics, Achaeans, and Eolians; the Germanics into Saxons, Franks, Angles, Goths, Cimbri, Jutes, Allans, Scandinavians, etc.

All these peoples belonged to the Indo-European, Aryan, or Caucasic race. They were white, either blue or grey-eyed, blond or red (straight or wavy hair), and they had sharp facial features. They belonged to a culture that centered on animal husbandry, a polytheistic religion, and many of them had a matriarchal society. They domesticated the horse and introduced iron weapons and utensils into Europe.

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