The Munich Pact was a diplomatic agreement between Great Britain and Nazy Germany, with Italy and France as signatory garantors of the pact. It was signed in Munich, Germany, on September 29, 1938, one year before World War II. The signatory nations agreed to grant the Third Reich the Sudetenland region, which had been taken from Germany and annexed to Czechoslovakia by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. About 90% of Sudetenland population were Germans and the political crisis cropped up when their nationalist leader, Konrad Henlein, demanded that this Germanic part of Czechoslovakia be reincorporated back to Germany. The following year, in March 1939, the Third Reich would invade the whole country without military resistance, forcing the President of Czechoslovakia, Emil Hacha to surrender and resign. The Munich Pact was a diplomatic success of Adolf Hitler and showed the political weakness of Neville Chamberlain’s government, which would be replaced by Winston Churchill later on.

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