The Neolithic (from Greek; neo, new; lithos, stone) was a period in the human evolution in which there is a take off in the development of improved stone implements beginning about 10,000 B.C. that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. As man began to use more refined stone tools, he learned first to domesticate animals, then the use of plants seeds. By settling permanently in one area, he became shepard and farmer. With the rise of agriculture, the pottery industry came into existence as here and there villages sprang up.
As a nomad everybody was a hunter and gatherer, wandering from place to place, looking for game. But as a sedentary, man could be a hunter, a farmer, a craftman, a slave, a warrior, a chaman, and a chief or king. Man had specilized in one job and society had become stratified. The neolithic age ends when the use of metal became widespread with the copper and bronze age.
The earliest known development of Neolithic culture was in SW Asia between 8000 B.C. and 6000 B.C. There the domestication of plants and animals was probably begun by the Mesolithic Natufian peoples, leading to the establishment of settled villages based on the cultivation of cereals, including wheat, barley, and millet, and the raising of cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. In the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys, the Neolithic culture of the Middle East developed into the urban civilizations of the Bronze Age by 3500 B.C.