The Richard Nixon Administration was the period of government of President Richard Nixon, Republican, taking place from 1969 to 1974. In 1968, in a well-managed national convention, Republicans had nominated Richard M Nixon for president and Spiro T Agnew of Maryland for vice-president, who won the national election in November that year, defeating the Democratic ticket Hubert H Humphrey (President Johnson’s vice-president) and Edmund Musky (Senator). Nixon would win a second term again in the 1972 presidential election, but he would not complete his second period due to the Watergate Scandal. Inheriting the war in Vietnam, civil rights issues and economic problems, Richard Nixon made numerous changes in his cabinet as he began his second term.
Richard Nixon’s foreign policy was characterized by a de-escalation of the war in Vietnam, implementing what was known as the vietnamization of the conflict, which consisted of replacing US troops by South Vietnamese soldiers, who had to be trained, leaving behind only military advisers and observers. In 1972, American bombings of North Vietnam were increased in order to put pressure on Ho Chi Minh government during the peace negotiation. Finally, in 1973, the US negotiator, Henry Kissinger, and North Vietnamese representatives signed the Paris Peace Accords, which was deemed an honorable way out of a war in which the United States became involved during a Democratic administration. In 1972, Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev signed SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks), which was a nuclear weapon limitation pact or treaty. Also in 1972, accompanied by Henry Kissinger, the President Nixon visited China, meeting with Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-Tung and the Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, paving the way for future US-Chinese relations.
In domestic policy, the Nixon administration initially attempted to stem the ever-increasing inflation and the rising budget deficit by employing the usual approaches: 1) cutting back on government spending; 2) having the Federal Reserve banks charge high interest rates to commercial banks, so that commercial banks in turn would charge high interest rates to the people and thereby discouraging them from borrowing; 3) using influences with businesses to have them curb large increases in price and with labor unions to have them refrain from demanding large increases in wages. However, in October 1971, Nixon implemented what was called the phase two of the administration program to halt inflation; this phase included the establishment of a Pay Board, which limited wage increases to 5.5 % and the establishment of a price commission, which limited price increases to 2.5%.
The Richard Nixon Administration Cabinet
Secretary of State: William P Rogers, a lawyer from New York, succeeded in 1973 by Henry Kissinger, who had been an adviser to the Nixon administration on matters of foreign policy.
Secretary of Defense: Melvin P Laird of Wisconsin
Attorney General: John N Mitchell, a New York lawyer and leading bond specialist