German Army Deployment For Battle of Stalingrad

By mid July, 1942, the Wehrmacht forces had reached the Don River as the Red Army’s divisions fell back across to the other side of the river. For the coming offensive against Stalingrad and the Caucasus, known as Operation Blue, the German Army Group South had been rearranged in two smaller army groups, which were redeployed along the Don and ready for action; in the north, Army Group B was composed of the German 2nd Army, the Hungarian 2nd Army, the Italian 8th Army, and the German 6th Army; in the south, Army Group A consisted of the German 4th Panzer Army, 1st Panzer Army, and the 17th Army. The 6th Army, under von Paulus, would push eastward towards the Volga River and take Stalingrad, supported by elements of the 4th Panzer Army, with Hungarian and Romanian forces picking up the rear. Meanwhile, the 1st Panzer Army, supported by the 17th, would march southwards towards the Caucasus.

Maps of German and Soviet order of battle before the battle for Stalingrad at the end of July and early August, 1942



Down Below: map of German deployment at the end of August, at the beginning of the battle


Electromagnetic Propulsion Rail Gun

The rail gun is a new US Navy weapon. As of 2016, it is on the last trial stage at sea, as it has alreay been exhibited at the US Navy expo in Washington DC. Developed by Bae System, this powerful gun uses cutting-edge, revolutionary techonology to propel its lethal projectile. Instead of traditional gun powder, the rail gun uses an electromagnetic propulsion system to shoot the tungsten-hardened projectile at ten times the speed of sound, over distances well over 170 miles. With this new propelling system, there is no need to carry dangerous explosive aboard a ship, for this high-tech gun uses only electricity as power source, representing a new offensive capability for the US Navy. The projectile is about 1,20 m in length, with a slender, pointed, conical shape and a round, flat base, being able to destroy any type of seagoing vessel.


Map of Germany After the Treaty of Versailles

Through the Treaty of Versailles, which was imposed by the Allies on their defeated enemy in 1919, Germany lost about a fourth of its territory. Huge chunks of land were taken away from her to create Poland and Czechoslovakia. This arbitrary decision taken by the Allied nations to change the European map created deep resentment in the German population and laid the groundwork for the emergence of Nazism and Adolf Hitler, creating the geopolitical circumstance for World War II.

Below: the Map of Germany and Central Europe after the Treaty of Versailles


US Foreign Policy

The United States of America has exercised political and economic hegemony over the Western World for the past seventy years, but the American foreign policy has been contradictory, schizophrenic, and suicidal. During the Cold War, for example, and in an ideological context, the US government backed many military coups and dictators in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa in order to avoid the expansion of communism through the so-feared domino effect. However, during the Carter Administration, the US government took a 180º turn, attacking military regimes in Latin America, accusing them of human right violations during the war against leftist terrorist groups; this was a complete contradictory and hypocritical US approach to Latin America guerrilla conflicts of the late 1970s, for it was a Democratic government that got the Unites States involved in the quagmire of Vietnam, dropping more bombs in Southeast Asia than during WWII, killing thousands of defenseless women and children, with the US foot soldiers burning entire Vietnamese peasants villages.

From 1979 to 1988, the US government armed the Mujahideen Islamic guerrilla to help them in their war against the Soviet Army that had invaded Afghanistan, also providing them with logistic support. The Reagan Administration spent hundreds of millions of dollars to help the Afghan Islamic insurgents drive the Russians out of their country. Nevertheless, it was the same American-backed Islamist group (now called the Taliban) that would commit the most horrendous terrorist act in world’s history on September 11, 2001, knocking down the World Trade Center towers and crashing a third plane against the Pentagon, with the undercover logistic support of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Quite a contrast to the Soviet foreign policy of the time; Russia had aided first China, during the Korean War, then North Vietnam in the early 1960s; however neither of these countries ever carried out attacks on Russian territories or interests.

In March 2003, the Bush Administration started Operation Iraqi Freedom, which was the invasion of Iraq with the objective to oust Saddam Hussein from power. Hussein was a secular dictator who had been backed and used by both the American and French governments in the 1980s to put a check on the Iran’s Islamic regime geopolitical expansion, with the goal to establish a balance of power in the region; this Iranian Islamist theocracy had overthrown the Shah of Persia in 1979. However, that balance of power was destroyed in 2003 as the absence of Saddam Hussein brought about a deep vacuum power, paving the way for some Islamist terrorist groups, that cropped up on the chaotic horizon that ensued and whose members are bent on creating a caliphate or religious State stretching from Iran to Spain and from France to North Africa.

Backed by the Obama Administration, the so called Arab Spring was a political and social movement that has taken place in Arab countries, knocking three secular regimes so far (including Moammar Gaddafi of Libya and Mubarak of Egypt) out of power. Nevertheless, it completely failed when the US government tried to overthrow the Russian-backed president Bashar al-Assad of Syria, by arming Islamist insurgents that stirred up a civil war in that country. This American move was extremely dangerous and suicidal for Europe and the Western World, as the armed struggle in Syria caused a massive, Islamist refugees invasion of Europe, most of them being young men of a fighting age. But the most unreasonable and senseless act of the American and European foreign policy in the region is that the Obama, Merkel and Hollande Administrations have refused to grant any aid and political asylum to Christians, Yazidis, Druzes, and other ethnic monorities, but have opened wide the migratory gates to Islamic refugees instead.

By Carlos B Camacho

WW1 British Infantry Drill

A demonstration of the British Army Infantry drill just before and during World War I. They use bolt-action Lee-Enfield rifles, which was the standard infantry weapon during this armed conflict.