The Second Industrial Revolution was the period of industrial growth that took place in Europe and the United States from 1825 to the first two decades of the 20th century. If the First Industrial Revolution was boosted by the textile industry in England in the late 18th century, the Second was triggered by the steam engines when applied to public and commercial transportation in the form of steam locomotives, which, in turn, boosted the steel industry as a need to build rails (for railways tracks), bridges, fireboxes, boilers, train wheels, rods, and so forth.
The year 1825 was the incipient beginning of the 2nd Industrial Revolution, for it was in this year that George Stephenson built the first public railways between Stockton and Darlington in England. From then on, it gruadually began to grow as the railways industry spread throughout Europe and the United States. This first phase of the Second Industrial Revolution received a big boost when the steam engine was also applied to maritime transportation, with the first steam ships crossing the Atlantic to bolster trade between Great Britain and America. The emergence of the first armored steam warships, such as the battleship, in the second half of the 19th century, gave it even a greater boost.
The second phase of the Second Industrial Revolution began with the introduction of the first practical and modern internal combustion engine, pantented in 1887 by the German engineer Gottlieb Daimler and soon applied to on-road vehicles (cars and trucks) and later to aircraft. The internal combustion engine, in turn, sparked the oil industry world wide.
The third phase of the Second Industrial Revolution was triggered by the development of the modern and practical alternating current generators and electrical motors, which were based on earlier invantions. The magic sparks that set it in motion came from the geniuses of Galileo Ferraris, Ernst Werner Siemens, and Nikola Tesla. The alternating current motor was soon used in factories, propelling copper mining and cable industry as the need for good electrical conductors to transport electricity arose.
If the Second Industrial Revolution made our lives easier, providing power and automation to every aspect of human activities, as we sank deep in sedentarism, paradoxically, it also exponentially increased destruction and devastation in the warfare of the 20th century in the forms of tanks, machine guns, howitzers, battlships, bombers, etc.