Signed in 843, the Treaty of Verdun was the peace agreement that put an end to the Carolingian Empire civil war period, in which the emperor Louis I’s sons, Charles the Bald, Lothair, and Louis the German fought against one another as each one of them claimed the throne and the right to rule over such a vast territory. Since Louis I, Charlemagne’s son, was weak and irresolute and could not control his sons ambition and behavior, the strive for power among his sons had started three years before the emperor’s death in 840. When Charles and Louis de German joined forces against their elder brother, Lothair agreed to sign the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Not only did it put an end to the civil war, but also to the Carolingian Empire for it got fragmented in three portions as part of the agreement.
– Charles was granted the territory lying to the west. Over the centuries, it would become France.
– Lothair’s claim to the throne was acknowledged, but he would rule only the central portion of the empire and which included a strip of land that stretched from northern Italy to what are today the Low Countries.
– Louis (or Ludwig) the German received the Germania, which was the eastern portion of the Carolingian Empire and which was the largest one. In time, it would become Germany.
Map of Carolingian Empire after the Treaty of Verdun