The United States occupation of Nicaragua began in 1912, when the Nicaraguan President, Adolfo Diaz, asked the US Government to military intervene in his country to suppress a local insurrection against Diaz’s government. This rebellion was led by former Nicaraguan Secretary of War, Luis Mena. As a result of this uprising against a the conservative government of Adolfo Diaz, the US President, William H Taft, sent a US Marine Corps division to fight against the rebels, who where very hostile to US citizens and economic interests. In 1914, the Nicaraguan and United States governments signed the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty, which granted the United States full land control of a proposed canal zone.
In early 1925, as Nicaragua had attained political stability, the US Marines were withdrawn from Nicaragua. However, the following year another armed revolt broke out against the local conservative government. This forced the US Secretary of States to send the Marines back to the Central American nation. Having quelled this insurrection, the American troops began fighting also against the nationalist guerrilla forces, led by Augusto Cesar Sandino. Nevertheless, by 1933, this rebel army had also been crushed by the Americans. A Nicaraguan National Guard was created and trained by the American Marines, who were shipped back to the United States later that year..
Most of the fighting took place in the jungle of Nicaragua. The US Marines were armed with Springfield M1903 bolt-action rifle, M1911 Colt pistol, M1917 and M1919 Browning machine guns, and 75mm guns, with hydro-pneumatic recoil system. The Nicaraguan rebels used 7.92mm Mauser bolt-action rifles and Winchester lever-action rifles, and other weapons which had been used during the Mexican revolution.