The weapons used in the Mexican Revolution were products of the Second Industrial Revolution and the armed race of the time as they were also used in other armed conflicts, such as the Boer War and World War I, such as the 7mm-caliber Hotchkiss machine gun which was fielded by federal troops by 1915. As it happened in the battlefields of Europe, in Mexico the cavalry was annihilated by machine gun fire; thus, Pancho Villa’s Northern Division cavalry charges were stopped dead by the industrialized units of the federal troops under Alvaro Obregón at the Battle of Celaya in 1915. Other machine guns used by the contending factions were the British 7.7mm Vickers and the 7.62mm Colt machine guns.
The rifles used by the federal army were the Mexican-made 7.7mm-caliber Mondragon rifle, which was the only semi-automatic rifle used in the revolution, and the German 7mm Mauser carbine and rifle. The Pancho Villa’s and Zapata’s troops were armed with Winchester M1895 (7.62mm-cal) lever-action rifle and the Sprinfield M1903 bolt-action rifle.
Among the artillery pieces fielded during the Mexican Revolution were the French Schneider-Canet 75mm gun, the Mexican-made St Chamond-Mondragon cannon, and the German Krupp 75mm howitzer. Barbed wire and spotlights were also used.