German Generals and Commanders

During World War II, Germany had talented and capable Generals and commanders, who were the proud of the Wehrmacht. Down below there is a list of the best German commanders of the war, according to their tactical skills and courage:

1- Erich von Manstein. He planned Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), which was the German offensive against France through the Ardennes, in 1940. He was one of the most outstanding German commander.

2- Heinz Guderian. Commander of armoured divisions, he was the brain behind the German Blitzkrieg concept. He was also known for his courage and determination.

3- Erwin Rommel. Known as the Fox Desert, he gained renown and respect among both Axis and Allied troops in Northern Africa.

4- Ewald von Kleist. He was one of the most decorated General in the German Army, specially for bravery. He commanded Panzer units, fighting in the Poland Campaign, Battle of France, and on the Eastern Front.

5- Maximilian von Weichs. A highly decorated German officer, he commanded an army corps in the German invasion of Poland, and the 2nd Army in the Battle of France and Operation Barbarossa.

6- Günther von Kluge. He proved to be a brilliant strategist on the battlefield, commanding the 4th Army in Poland, in 1939, and the 2nd and 3rd Panzer Groups in the invasion of the Russia in 1941.

7- Hermann Göring. A WW1 ace pilot, he was the commander of the German Luftwaffe.

8- Karl Dönitz. Commander of the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) who developed the “wolfpack” tactic submarine warefare.

9- Fedor von Bock. He commanded Army Group Center during the invasion of the Soviet Union.

10- Wilhelm List. He was commander of the 14th Army in Poland and the 12th Army in the invasion of France.

11- Walther von Reichenau. Commander of the 10th Army during the invasion of Poland, and 6th Army in the Eastern Front until his death in 1942, being replaced by von Paulus.

12- Gerd von Rundstedt. He commanded Army Group South in the Polish Campaign, Army Group A during the German invasion of France, and Army Group South during Operation Barbarossa.

13- Walther von Brauchitsch. He was commander in chief of the German Army.

14- Eberhard von Mackensen. Commander of 3rd Army Corps of Army Group South during Operation Barbarossa, and commander of 1st Panzer Army in Operation Fall Blau.

Heinz Guderian

Heinz_GuderianHeinz Wilhelm Guderian (1888-1954) was a German General and military theorist who fought during World War II, commanding German Army’s armoured units. The Wehrmacht’s panzer forces were conceived and then fought according to his best-known work, “Achtung— Panzer!,” a book on military tactics based on the use of armored vehicles. Although he was promoted to the rank of full general, he never became field marshal. Guderian was one of the best generals of World War II, participating as commander of the XIX Corps in the Polish Campaign and the Battle of France, and as commander of Panzergruppe 2 in Operation Barbarossa.

Heinz Guderian was born on June 17, 1888, in Culm, West-Prussia, south of Danzig. He was educated in military schools and in the Military Academy of Berlin from 1901 to 1907. In 1907, as an ensign cadet, Guderian joined the JÃgger Battalion Nr. 10, which was commanded by his father. In 1908, he attended the War Academy at Metz; then he was commissioned 2nd Lieutenant. In 1911, Heinz wanted to marry Margarete Goerne, but, as his father thought he was too young for marriage, he was sent for special instruction to Telegraphen-Battalion Nr. 3 instead. Nevertheless, after finishing the course in 1913, Heinz married Margarete. They had two sons, who fought in World War II with the Panzertruppen.

During the Great War, Guderian served as a General Staff officer, which allowed him to get an overall view of battlefield conditions. Sometimes, he disagreed with his superiors and as a result he was transferred to the army intelligence department. After the war, he was appointed company commander of the 10th Jägger Battalion. Then he joined the ‘General Staff’-in-waiting, “in waiting” because the German General Staff was explicitly forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. In 1927 Guderian rose to the rank of major and was transferred to the Truppenamt group for Army transport and Overseer of motorized tactics based in Berlin. This appointment put him at the center of the development of what would later become known as the blitzkrieg.

Between 1936 and 1937, Heinz Guderian wrote “Achtung- Panzer!.” It was an explanation of Guderian’s theories on the role tanks and aircraft should play in modern warfare. It was a compilation of Guderian’s own theories and the ideas of other proponents of armored and combined-arms warfare within the general staff. The panzer force he devised would become the core of the German Army’s power in World War II and perform the fighting style known as blitzkrieg, lightning war.

When World War II broke out, Guderian first served as the XIX Army Corps commander during the invasion of Poland, leading the German forces during the Battle of Wizna and testing his theories for the first time in the reality of war. In May 1940, during the invasion of France, he personally led the attack that plowed through the Ardennes Forest, crossed the Meuse River and broke through the French lines at Sedan. Guderian commanded his panzer forces in quick blitzkrieg-style advances, earning the nickname “Schneller Heinz”, which means “Hurry-Up Heinz” among his troops. Guderian’s panzer group led the “race to the sea” which split the Allied armies in two and deprived the French armies and the British Expeditionary Force in Northern France and Belgium of their fuel, ammunition , and food. Guderian’s column was famously denied the chance to destroy the Allied beachhead at Dunkirk by Hitler’s orders.

In 1941, during Operation Barbarossa, Heinz Guderian commanded Panzergruppe 2 and received the 24th award of the Oak Leaves to his Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross on July 17. From October 5, 1941 he led the Second Panzer Army. His armored divisions spearheaded the capture of Smolensk in a remarkably short time and was poised to launch the final assault on Moscow when he was ordered to turn south instead towards Kiev. He protested against this decision and, as a result, lost the Führer’s confidence. He was relieved of his command on December 25, 1941, and transferred to the reserve pool of the army command. Thus, his chances of being promoted to field marshal, which depended on Hitler’s personal decision, had been ruined forever. After the German defeat at Stalingrad, Guderian was appointed Inspector-General of the Armored Troops on March 1, 1943. At this new post, his responsibilities were to determine armored strategy and to supervise tank design and production and the training of Germany’s panzer forces.

After the failure of the July 20 Plot in which he had no involvement, Heinz Guderian was appointed chief of staff of the army, replacing Kurt Zeitzler on July 21, 1944. During his tenure as chief of staff he had a long series of violent rows with Hitler over the way in which German Army should handle the war on both fronts. Guderian was finally dismissed on March, 28, 1945, after a shouting-match over the failed counterattack of General Theodor Busse’s 9th Army to break through to units encircled at Küstrin.

Heinz Guderian surrendered to American troops on May 10, 1945, and remained in U.S. custody as a prisoner of war until he was released on June 17, 1948. He was not charged with any war crimes during the Nuremberg Trials, for his actions and behavior were considered to be consistent with those of a professional soldier. After the war he was often invited to attend meetings of British veterans’ groups, where he analyzed and discussed past battles with his former foes.

Heinz Guderian died on May 14, 1954, at the age of 65, in Schwangau near Füssen and is buried at the cementery on Hildesheimer Street, in Goslar, Germany.

Why Did Hitler Attack the Soviet Union?

The reason why Adolf Hitler attacked Russia on June 22, 1941, was two fold: 1) to secure a permanent source of oil supply, and 2) to eliminate the latent Soviet threat on Germany, which arose out of deep idelogical differences between the two nations. Having invaded Poland in 1939 and defeated the Low Countries and France the following year, the Third Reich needed more oil and raw materials to meet the increasing demands of German military machine and armament industry; demands the newly conquered Western European countries could not meet, and, by early 1941, Germany had already become dependant on huge imports from the Soviet Union and Eastern European countries. As a result, Hitler looked to the East. The ideological rift that existed between the two countries was clear to see; Germany was ruled by an extreme-right, nationalist government, known as the Third Reich, while Russia was brutally governed by an extreme-left, communist regime under Joseph Stalin, a psycopath and paranoid man.

Signed eight days before the Whermacht invasion of Poland, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Treaty, known as the “Non-Aggression Pact”, included a secret clause that allowed each signing country to establish spheres of influence, through which both Stalin and Hitler could secure and exert political and economic influence on neighboring countries. Thus, as it had been previously agreed on in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, by late September 1939, the Soviet Union had completed the conquest of the eastern portion of Poland, to which Stalin would soon attach the Baltic States of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and a portion of Finnish territory as spheres of influence and later declared as parts of the Soviet Union. However, the real threat to Germany oil supplies arose when the Red Army invaded the Romanian territory of Bessarabia and Bukovina, building up a strong military force in the area, threatening to invade the country. Since Rumania accounted for 65% of German oil imports, Adolf Hitler became real worried about this new developing situation. As he stepped up his plans for a sudden attack on the Soviet Union, he also envisioned to seize the Russian oil fields of the Caucasus. The attack on the Stalin-ruled Russia was code-named Operation Barbarossa, ending up in the Battle of Moscow, from November 1941 to January 1942, while the German invasion of the Caucasus steppes was called Operation Fall Blau, which led up to Battle of Stalingrad.

Hitler attacks the Soviet Union (footage)

Turkey Is Planning Massive Invasion of Syria

Amidst the bloody civil war going on in its neighboring country, the Turkish government might be planning a massive military invasion of Syria to overthrow al-Assad regime and help the Muslim insurgency. It must be remembered that Turkey had already been accused of buying oil from ISIS in the black market. As a result, Russia is on the alert and is ready to support its Allied, Bashar al-Assad. The question: Is Turkey following direct instructions from Obama, whose Administration main goal is the ousting of the Syrian president? Watch the video below.

Postwar Germany

Invaded by the Allied armies at the end of World War II, Germany began the postwar period divided into four occupation zones: American, British, French, and Soviet. The sector occupied by the three western Allied countries would become the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), a democratic country with a free market society; while the portion occupied by the Red Army would become the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), a non-democratic country whose economy was run by the State, which did not allow private property and free individual enterprise.

Four years after World War II, right after the Berlin Airlift and the approval of its new Constitution (the Basic Law) in May 1949, West Germany held its first democratic elections, in which Konrad Adenauer, from the Christian Democratic Union Party (CDU), was elected chancellor. During his government (1949-1963), and boosted by an American, financial aid package, called the Marshall Plan, Germany would undergo a period of great economic growth and technological development, despite the fact of having been literally razed by Allied carpet bombing during World War II. In 1955, as the Cold War Iron Curtain had been dropped by the Soviet Union across Europe from north to south, West Germany became a NATO member, the military organization of western free democratic countries.

In December 1989, the Berlin Wall, which divided the former capital of Germany, was partially torn down as the Berliners from East Germany were allowed for the first time to freely travel in and out of West Germany. In August 1990, with the collapse of Communism and the former Soviet Union, East Germany joined West Germany to become one nation again.

Mistakes Made By US Presidents

In the 20th and 21st centuries, US Presidents made big mistakes in the international arena, some of which acted like political gasoline that powered the breaking out of future wars, others prevented the United States of America from becoming the only hegemonic super power in the world. With the advantage of hindsight, I put down below what I consider the most serious blunders committed by American Presidents in history:

1- In his World War I peace program’s Fourteen Points, Democratic President Woodrow Wilson urged the Allied leaders the establishment of an independent Poland, with access to the Baltic Sea through a land corridor; thus, a huge chunk of territory was arbitrarily taken away from Germany to create the new State of Poland. As everybody knows, the main rationale behind the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, was the recovery of the city of Danzig and the German land that made up the Polish Corridor, which had isolated East Prussia from the rest of Germany. The loss of part of her territory was the main cause of the deep resentment in the German people, which paved the way for Adolf Hitler to get to power in Germany.

2- At the end of April 1945, Democratic President Harry Truman ordered General Dwight Eisenhower to delay the advance of the Allied spearhead ground units as they approached Berlin in order to give the Soviet Army time to get there first and take the that city so that it could be under the Soviet Union military control as it had been previous agreed on in the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Not complying with one of the key points of the same conference, Stalin did not allow free democratic election in East Germany, Poland, and other Eastern European countries invaded by the Red Army, as Europe was divided into a free capitalist block of nations and a communist block. By the end of 1945, the United States was the only country in the world that was armed with atomic bombs and long range bombers to deliver them; however the US government did not put any pressure on Stalin for this dictator to withdraw the communist troops from the Eastern European countries.

3- In November 1943, during the Tehran Conference, the American President Franklin D Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill persuaded Josef Stalin to declare war on Japan and attack this country, opening a second front in the Pacific theater. Complying with what had been agreed at Tehran and Yalta conferences, the Soviet Union attacked Japan on August 9, 1945, at the end of the war, overrunning the Japanese positions in Korea as they seized almost half of the former Japanese colony. Meanwhile, the United States invaded Korea from the south and both armies met near the 38º parallel. It was not necessary for the Red Army to attack Japan and invade Korea, for on August 9, 1945, the United States had already dropped two atomic bombs on Japan as this country was about to surrender. The Soviets stayed three years in the northern half of the peninsula, enough time to establish a communist regime, while the United States supported free election and the establishment of capitalist, democratic republic.This how Korea got ideological divided. This division was the root of the Korean War that would break out in 1950. The big mistake was to persuade Stalin to invade Japanese-held territory, which set the stage for future conflicts in Asia.

4- At the beginning of 1951, Presiden Harry Truman did not authorize General Douglas MacArthur to conduct a full scale counter-attack on the Chinese troops that had poured into North Korea in support of the communist government and carry the war into China and completely defeat this Marxist country. In April 1951, the Presidente removed MacArthur from his command, replacing him with General Matthew Ridgway. This inaction and decision of carrying out a limited war led to a draw and to the dangerous, present-day, political and military situation in the Peninsula, with human rights being violated in North Korea, which had already acquired its own nuclear weapons.

5- In 1964, the Johnson Administrations got involved in a limited yet exhausting and expensive war in Vietnam in support of an unpopular South Vietnamese government, which did nothing to improve the squalid living conditions of the South Vietnamese people. To defeat the Vietcong guerrilla, a total war against Ho Chi Minh’s regime should have decisively been carried out.

6- In 1977, President Jimmy Carter denied any military support to Anastasio Somoza, letting Nicaragua fall in the hands of the Sandinista pro-Castro, communist guerrillas. As a result, violence spread throughout Central America, with Daniel Ortega cracking down and banning dissenters, political activities, and muffling the press as he supported Colombian drug barons.

7- In 1982, the Reagan Administration began to supply extreme Islamist guerrilla groups with weapons in an effort to help them expel the Soviet Army from Afghanistan. Over the years, these Islamists got to power as the Taliban, who would organize the greatest terrorist act in history of mankind, which was the attack on the World Trade Center twin towers on September 11, 2001.

8- In November 2013, President Barack Obama eased up economic sanction on Iran as he began deplomatic negotiations to persuade the Islamist government to stop his nuclear program.

9- In 2011, the Amercan President Barack Obama began a huge undercover operation to overthrow secular dictators in North Africa and the Middle East. With the excuse to set up democratic governments in the region, the CIA supported all types of political opposition, even extreme Islamic guerrillas. These “democratic” revolution was called the “Arab Spring” by the international press. Thus, the governments of Libya, Egypt, and Tunez fell to these Muslim hordes, with Muamar al Qadhafi being assassinated and Hosni Mubarak sentenced to life.

10- In an attempt to oust from power Bashar al-Assad in Syria, the American goverment organized massive street demonstrations against the regime, arming through the CIA Islamic insurgent guerrillas, which triggered the Syrian Civil War in 2011; one of the bloodiest armed conflict in the history of the Middle East. This caused an unprecedented humanitarian crisis as hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees poured into Europe, giving ISIS a big chance to infiltrate the European countries, specially Germany and France and launch terrorist attacks.

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